Galicia has in the last four decades gone through major processes of industrial reconversion. At the same time, its primary sector still is of great importance. This research sets out two factors that led to the region having achieved a sustained growth in people’s average income from 1955 to 1996; this convergence has been the result not only of a capacity to generate income, but of its lower rate of population growth. The study also shows that the increases achieved in labor productivity have been the key in Galicia’s economic growth, with technical progress being the element that has helped most to increase output per worker. This work is part of the framework of collaboration between the BBV Foundation and the Valencian Institute for Economic Research (IVIE) to study the regional Spanish economy.