Against the background of the current research and development related to the Human Genome Project, society must provide a response by means of the appropriate legal instruments. Freedom, the right to privacy, the legal limitations to genetic manipulation, genetic identification of criminals or the ability to patent genetic discoveries, are some of the questions analyzed extensively in the publication. It informs both specialists and the non-initiated in legal issues on the current state of the problem in relation to specific needs. The work is the result of the conference organized by the BBV Foundation in 1993 on The Law and the Human Genome Project, in which the Provincial Government of Vizcaya and the Universidad de Deusto collaborated.