This study aggregates and sums up the conclusions of fifteen research monographs on the future of social insurance against unemployment in Spain. It represents a reflection and analysis of the problems for society raised by this priority question for social cohesion in advanced nations. The BBV Foundation convened economists and professionals in the areas of law, sociology and demographics convened for a project that extended over more than two years. The study and debate between them began with the recognition that there are demographic and specific differences between Spain and other advanced countries in the task of perfecting the Social Security system, which placed it in a special position; in addition, Spain is one of the few developed countries that has not recently implemented changes to its system. The research examines in detail the outlook for the problem of financing employment inactivity in the near future.