Together with the major potential benefits for medicine and health of decoding the human genome, there are ethical dilemmas relating to the protection of the individual and society, requiring a clear and open discussion is required by scientists themselves. This reflection allows us to prepare in better conditions for the uncertainties that new research will bring to humanity in the coming years. In 1990 the BBV Foundation organized the 2nd Seminar on International Cooperation for the Human Genome Project: Ethics. The Foundation trusts that this pioneering forum for interdisciplinary discussion on this issue, as reflected in this publication, can become a useful reference work for specialists.